Top to bottom:
Colonel John M. Chivington
Southern Cheyenne Principal Chief Black Kettle
Captain Silas S. Soule
Major Edward W. Wynkoop
Cheyenne Dog Soldier Chief Bull Bear
Colorado Territorial Governor John Evans
Southern Arapaho Principal Chief Little Raven
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Chivington, Wynkoop, Bull Bear, Evans courtesy Western History/Geneaology Department, Denver Public Library.  Soule, courtesy Byron Strom private materials,
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We'll never forget
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At dawn on November 29, 1864, a volunteer Colorado
militia swept down on a sleeping Cheyenne and Arapaho
village camped on the Big Sandy River in southeastern
Colorado, exacting brutal revenge for a year-long
campaign of terror waged by tribal warrior societies on the
Kansas and Colorado plains.

When the smoke cleared, Colonel John M. Chivington’s
troops returned to Denver, waving Indian scalps and body
parts to an adoring crowd that hailed the conquering
heroes as saviors of the territory.  Chivington claimed his
militia decimated the entire Cheyenne and Arapaho
nations – some five to six hundred warriors among them,
including the fearsome Cheyenne Dog Soldiers.  His
actions prompted the
Rocky Mountain News to hoist
Chivington among the greatest American military leaders
of the time, an endorsement that would surely catapult the
former Methodist preacher to lofty political office.

But the Dog Soldiers were still alive.  In fact, few of the
warriors guilty of the violent summer depredations on the
Plains were anywhere near Sand Creek when the civilian
militia attacked.  Union soldiers accused Chivington of
conducting a wholesale massacre of peaceably inclined
Indian prisoners camped under the protection of the U.S.
Army, claiming the majority of the estimated 230 killed
were women, children and elderly.  

Within months, Chivington’s renowned “Battle of Sand
Creek” descended into a broiling kettle of accusation and
recrimination, turning soldier against soldier, and Indian
against Indian.

Explore this site for information on John Chivington, Black
Kettle, Edward Wynkoop, Silas Soule, White Antelope,
Left Hand, John Evans, John Smith, Bull Bear, Little
Raven, and the extraordinary circumstances leading up
to, and following the massacre at Sand Creek.
Search site links:

Detailed historical timeline leading to the
Sand Creek Massacre

Recommended books about the Sand Creek

Collected documents pertaining to the
massacre.  Entire text of many documents are
available on this site; or, you may follow links
to where they can be obtained.

Hundreds of links to other sites related to the
Sand Creek Massacre, Native Americans,
Indian Wars and military history.
Massacre at Sand Creek
Black Kettle
Finding Sand Creek
Silas Soule
The Sand Creek Massacre
Go to Silas S. Soule biography
Go to Edward W. Wynkoop biography
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Ned Wynkoop & the Lonely Road
From Sand Creek
The Sand Creek Massacre
A Misplaced Massacre
Go to John Evans
Sand Creek
Chief Left Hand
The Fighting Parson
The Life of George Bent
Sand Creek and the
Tragic End of a Lifeway
Go to John M. Chivington biography