The Sand Creek Massacre
War of the Rebellion Records - Battle of La Glorieta Pass, 1862
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The Battle of La Glorieta Pass

Series I, Vol. IX, Part I


MARCH 26, 1862.- Skirmish at Apache Canon, N. Mex.


Numbers 1.- Major John M. Chivington, First Colorado Infantry.

Numbers 2.- Captain Charles J. Walker, Second U. S. Cavalry, including engagement at Glorieta, March 28.

Numbers 1. Report of Major John M. Chivington, First Colorado Infantry.


March 26, 1862.

GENERAL: I have the honor to submit to you the following report of the troops under my command on the 26th of March, 1862, at
the battle of Apache Canon:

The force consisted as follows: Company A, 60 men, Captain Wynkoop; Company E, 60 men, Captain Anthony, and 60 men of
Company D, Captain Downing, of the First Regiment Colorado Infantry Volunteers, and 28 men of Company C, 6 men of Company
D, 6 men of Company -, 10 men of Company K, Third Cavalry, under Captain Howland and Lieutenants Wall and Falvey; 50 men of
Company E, Third Cavalry, commanded by Captain Walker and Lieutenant Banks; 50 men of Companies D and G, First Cavalry,
under Captain Lord and Lieutenant Bernard (all of the U. S. Army), and 88 men of Company F, First Regiment Cavalry Colorado
Volunteers, under Captain Cook and Lieutenants Nelson and Marshall; making the total force on our side 418 men. We marched
from Bernal Springs for Santa Fe at 3 o'clock p. m. of the 25th instant, intending to surprise the enemy in small force at that place.
After march of 35 miles, and learning we were in the vicinity of the enemy's pickets, we halted about midnight, and at 2 o'clock a. m.
on the 26th Lieutenant Nelson, with 20 men, was sent out to surprise their pickets, which they did, and captured them at 10 o'clock
a. m. The detachment again moved forward, and just as we entered the canon (Apache) discovered the advance guard of the foe
and captured two lieutenants. In a few minutes they planted their battery and began to throw grape and shell among us. In
double-quick Companies A and E, First Colorado volunteers, were deployed as skirmishers to the left and on the mountain side,
and Company D, First Colorado Volunteers, was deployed as skirmishers to the right on the mountain side, and an order was given
that the cavalry be held


*This skirmish is also mentioned in Slough's and Scurry's reports of engagement, March 28, at Glorieta, N. Mex.



in readiness to charge whenever the cannon were about to retreat. Soon our men from the mountain sides made it took hot for their
gunners, and they fell back about 1 1/2 miles and took another and more advantageous position, completely covering the sides of
the mountains with their skirmishers to support their guns in the canon below them.

Having mean time assembled our skirmishers in the canon, we again deployed Company D, First Colorado Volunteers, on the right,
and Companies A and E, First Colorado Volunteers, on the left, and dismounted all the cavalry and deployed them as skirmishers,
except Company F, First Colorado Volunteers, Captain Cook, who was ordered to charge them the moment they gave way before
the fire of our infantry. After a contest of an hour they began to prepare for another retreat, and by this time Company D, Captain
Downing, had well nigh flanked them, so as to cut off their retreat, Captain Cook and Lieutenants Nelson and Marshall leading the
way. Company F now made a flying charge on the enemy, running over and trampling them under the horses' feet. Captain
Downing with his men, and Lieutenant Bernard with Company C, Third Cavalry, poured into him a sharp fire from the right, which
drove him up a canon on the left side of the main canon, when Companies A and E, First Colorado Volunteers, took a large number
of prisoners. It now being sundown, and we not knowing how near the enemy's re-enforcements might be, and having no cannon to
oppose theirs, hastened to gather up our dead and wounded and several of the enemy's, and then fell back to Pigeon's Ranch and
encamped for the night.

Our loss was 5 killed and 14 wounded. The loss of the enemy was, as we ascertained from their own accounts, 32 killed, 43
wounded, and 71 taken prisoners.

I am, sir, with much respect, your obedient servant,


Major, First Regiment Colorado Volunteers.

Brigadier General E. R. S. CANBY, U. S. A.,

Commanding Department New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. Mex.

Numbers 2. Report of Captain Charles J. Walker, Second U. S. Cavalry, including engagement at Glorieta, March 28.

FORT CRAIG, N. MEX., May 20, 1862.

SIR: In compliance with orders from the Headquarters of the South Military District, Fort Craig, N. Mex., of May 18, 1862, requiring a
detailed report of the operations of my company or command in the recent actions of Apache Canon and Pigeon's Ranch, I have
the honor to state that on the morning of the 26th of March last my company, forming a part of the cavalry command under Captain
G. W. Howland, Third Cavalry, moved from Gray's Ranch, near the old Pecos Church, in the direction of Johnson's Ranch, in
Apache Canon, a point near which we reached about 2 o'clock p. m. We here discovered the enemy, about 250 or 300 strong,
some 400 or 500 yards in front of us. They had two pieces of artillery in position on the road, and were awaiting us. As soon as our
column appeared they opened fire with their battery, and, though they kept it up between five and ten minutes at close range, did
us no damage. They then retired with their guns, and our

Page 532 OPERATIONS IN TEX., N. MEX., AND ARIZ. Chapter XXI.   

entire force, infantry and cavalry, advanced about 600 or 800 yards farther on the road. At this point my company was ordered to
dismount and assist Captain Wynkoop's company of Colorado Volunteers in clearing the hills to the left and front of our position.
Some little skirmishing occurred after this at long range, but the enemy fell back so rapidly that we scarcely got sight of them.

By this time the firing had ceased at every point of the field and the troops were recalled to the road, where my company remained
until about 9.30 o'clock that night, when I retired to Pigeon's Ranch and rejoined Colonel Chivington. Next morning we marched to
old Pecos Church, at which place Colonel Slough untied all of the forces. On the following morning (March 28) the entire command,
my company in advance, moved to Pigeon's Ranch, where we halted about an hour and a half, after which we started on. We had
not, however, proceeded more than 600 or 700 yards before we discovered the enemy in force immediately in front of us. They, as
on the 26th, had their artillery (three pieces) in the road, ready to receive us. As soon as I our left, and dismounted my company
and commenced skirmishing on foot. About this time Captain Ritter's battery arrived, and, supported by the infantry, took position in
the road on my right. As soon as he opened on the enemy's guns my company was ordered to mount and follow the colonel
commanding. I followed Colonel Slough, in obedience to this order, for a half of three-quarters of an hour, by which time the action
had become general. I was then ordered to occupy the high ridge running obliquely back from the road and on the right of Pigeon's
house. I did so, and held that position during the remainder of the day, or at least until our forces had retired from the field. While in
this position we at several times during the day had some skirmishing with the enemy in small parties. The company, though under
fire a great part of the day, accomplished nothing that I remember of special importance, though they did all that the position
assigned them required. The officer (Lieutenant Sidney Banks) and men behaved handsomely whenever brought under the
enemy's fire, and gave every evidence of a willingness and determination to do any duty that might be required of them. The
strength of the company (E, Third U. S. Cavalry) during these two actions was one officer (Lieutenant Sidney Banks, Third Cavalry)
besides myself and about 40 or 45 enlisted men.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Second Cavalry, Commanding Company E, Third Cavalry.

Lieutenant N. M. MACRAE,

Fourth New Mexico Volunteers, Act. Asst. Adjt. General

MARCH 28, 1862.- Engagement of Glorieta, or Pigeon's Ranch, N. Mex.


Numbers 1.- Colonel John P. Slough, First Colorado Infantry.

Numbers 2.- Lieutenant Colonel Samuel F. Tappan, First Colorado Infantry.

Numbers 3.- Major John M. Chivington, First Colorado Infantry.

Numbers 4.- Captain John F. Ritter, Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, commanding light battery.

Numbers 5.- Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley, C. S. Army.

Numbers 6.- Colonel William R. Scurry, Fourth Texas Cavalry.


Numbers 1. Reports of Colonel John P. Slough, First Colorado Infantry.

KOZLOWSKI'S RANCH, March 29, 1862.

COLONEL: Learning from our spies that the enemy, about 1,000 strong, were in the Apache Canon and at Johnston's Ranch
beyond, I concluded to reconnoiter in force, with a view of ascertaining the position of the enemy and of harassing them as much as
possible; hence left this place with my command, nearly 1,300 strong, at 8 o'clock yesterday morning. To facilitate the
reconnaissance I sent Major J. M. Chivington, First Regiment Colorado Volunteers, by a road running to the left of the canon and
nearly parallel thereto, with about 430 officers and picked men, with instructions to push forward to Johnson's. With the remainder of
the command I entered the canon, and had attained but a short distance when our pickets announced that the enemy was near and
had taken position in a thick grove of trees, with their line extending from mesa to mesa across the canon, and their battery,
consisting of four pieces, placed in position. I at once detailed a considerable force of flankers, placed the batteries in position, and
placed the cavalry - nearly all dismounted - and the remainder of the infantry in position to support the batteries.

Before the arrangement of my forces was completed the enemy opened fire upon us. The action began about 10 o'clock and
continued until after 4 p. m. The character of the country was such as to make the engagement of the bushwhacking kind. Hearing
of the success of Major Chivington's command, and the object of our movement being successful, we fell back in order to our camp.
Our loss in killed is probably 20, including Lieutenant Baker, or Company I, Colorado Volunteers; in wounded probably 50, including
Lieutenant Chambers, of Company C, Colorado Volunteers, and Lieutenant McGrath, U. S. Army, who was serving with Captain
Ritter's battery; in missing probably 30. The enemy's loss is in killed from 40 to 60 and wounded probably over 100. In addition we
took some 25 prisoners and rendered unfit for service three pieces of their artillery. We took and destroyed their train of about 60
wagons, with their contents, consisting of ammunition, subsistence, forage, clothing, officers' baggage, &c. Among the killed of the
enemy 2 majors, 2 captains and among the enemy made three attempts to take our batteries and were repelled in each with severe

The strength of the enemy, as received from spies and prisoners, in the canon was altogether some 1,200 or 1,300, some 200 of
whom were at or near Johnson's Ranch, and were engaged by Major Chivington's command.

The officers and men behaved nobly. My thanks are due to my staff officers for the courage and ability with which they assisted me
in conducting the engagement.

As soon as all the details are ascertained I will send an official report of the engagement.

Very respectfully,


Colonel, Commanding Northern Division, Army of New Mexico.

Colonel E. R. S. CANBY,

Commanding Department of New Mexico.

Page 534 OPERATIONS IN TEX., N. MEX., AND ARIZ. Chapter XXI.   

San Jose, N. Mex., March 30, 1862.

SIR: As the department commander is at Fort Craig, beyond the lines of the enemy, I have the honor to submit direct a synopsis of
the military operations of the division since its organization at Fort Union. When an opportunity occurs a complete report will be
submitted through the proper channels.

After the arrival of the First Regiment Colorado Volunteers at Fort Union I found that Colonel Paul, Fourth Regiment New Mexico
Volunteers, had completed the preliminary arrangements for throwing a column of troops into the field, and by seniority of volunteer
commission I claimed the command. Accordingly the following division was organized and I assumed the command of the whole:
First Colorado Volunteers, aggregate 916; Captain Lewis' battalion Fifth Infantry and Captain Ford's company volunteers (Fourth
New Mexico), three companies, 191; Captain Howland's cavalry detachment of First and Third Cavalry and Company E, Third
Cavalry, 150; Captain Ritter's battery, four guns, 53; Lieutenant Claflin's battery, four small howitzers, 32. Total, 1,342.

The movement commenced from Fort Union of Saturday, the 22nd March, and the command encamped at Bernal Springs, 45 miles
from Union, on Thursday, the 25th instant. On Wednesday, the 26th instant, a command of 200 cavalry and 180 infantry, under
Major Chivington, was advanced toward Santa Fe, with a view of capturing or defeating a force of the enemy reported to be
stationed there. The enemy in force was engaged near Johnson's Ranch, Apache Canon, about 15 miles on this side of Santa Fe.
The result was victorious to our forces. The enemy was defeated, with some 20 to 25 killed, more wounded, and about 70 prisoners,
who fell into our hands. Our loss was small - 3 men killed in battle, 2 since died, and some 8 other wounded. Among the wounded is
Captain Cook, Colorado Volunteers, badly. I regret to report that Lieutenant Marshall, Colorado Volunteers, accidentally shot
himself while breaking a loaded musket which he held in his hand by the muzzle. Having accomplished this, Major Chivington's
command took position on the Pecos, at Kozlowski's Ranch, 27 miles from Santa Fe.

About noon on the 27th I left Camp Paul, at Bernal Springs, and about 2 o'clock next morning I had posted my entire force at
Kozlowski's. On the 28th a movement was made upon the enemy in two columns, with a view of reconnoitering his position at
Johnson's Ranch. Fort this purpose an infantry force of regulars and volunteers, under Major Chivington, was directed to move off
on the Gallisteo road, attain the principal heights upon the side of Apache Canon, and occupy them, while the main body, under my
command, moved directly into the canon. It was known before this movement was made that the enemy had been strongly
re-enforced, and his estimated strength was from 1,200 to 1,400.

At 9 o'clock we left our encampment, and at 10.30 a. m. we arrived at Pigeon's Ranch, 5 miles distant, the command under Major
Chivington having flanked off at a point about 2 miles beyond Kozlowski's. We had just reached Pigeon's when I directed Captain
Chapin, Seventh Infantry, adjutant-general, to proceed forward with the cavalry and reconnoiter the position of the enemy. He had
proceeded but about 300 yards when our pickets were driven in, and the enemy opened a fire of grape and shell from a battery
carefully placed in position upon the hill-side above. The batteries were brought forward and the infantry thrown out upon the
flanks. The cavalry, with an addition of infantry,


supported the batteries, and the firing became general. The battle continued over five hours. The fighting was all done in thick
covers of cedars, and having met the enemy where he was not expected the action was defensive from its beginning to its end.
Major Chivington's command continued on toward Johnson's, where some 200 or the enemy were posted, and fell upon the
enemy's train of 60 wagons, capturing and destroying it and capturing and destroying one 6-pounder gun, and taking 2 officers and
about 15 men prisoners. The loss of this train was a most serious disaster to the enemy, destroying his baggage and ammunition,
and depriving him of provisions, of which he was short. Much praise is due to the officers and men of Major Chivington's command.

About 5 o'clock p. m. a flag of truce came from the enemy, and measures were taken by both forces to gather up the dead and take
care of the wounded. Our loss is not great. We have 1 officer (Lieutenant Baker, Colorado Volunteers) killed and 2 (Lieutenants
McGrath, U. S. Army, and Lieutenant Chambers, Colorado Volunteers) wounded; 28 men killed and 40 wounded. We lost some 15
prisoners. the loss of the enemy is great. His killed amount to at least 100, his wounded at least 150, and 1 captain and several men
prisoners. He is still burying his dead. It is claimed in the battles of the 26th and 28th together that we damaged the enemy at least
350 killed, wounded, and prisoners, and have destroyed their entire train and three pieces of artillery - one by Major Chivington and
two by our batteries. We have killed 5 of their officers - 2 majors, 1 captain, and 2 lieutenants - and have captured 5 more - 2
captains and 3 lieutenants. This has been done with the purpose of annoying and harassing the enemy and under orders from
Colonel Canby, commanding department. But as the instructions from him are to protect Fort Union at all hazards and leave nothing
to chance, and as the numbers and position of the enemy in a mountain canon are too strong to make a battle with my force, I shall
now occupy a position to protect Fort Union and at the same time harass and damage the enemy.

Officers and men, regulars and volunteers, all acquitted themselves handsomely during bothy engagements. It is especially proper
that praise should be accorded Captain Ritter and Lieutenant Claflin, U. S. Army, for the efficient manner in which they handled their
batteries during the battle of the 28th instant.

I desire to notice the members of my staff for the efficient manner in which they assisted me in the battle of Pigeon's Ranch, and
especially Captain Chapin, U. S. Army, assistant adjutant-general; Lieutenants Bonesteel and Cobb, of the Colorado Volunteers,
and Mr. J. Howe Watts, volunteer aide, upon all of whom fell the heavier portion of dangerous duty during the battle, and whose
intelligent, courageous, and prompt action contributed much towards the result attained.

In conclusion, I would add that to Captain Chapin, whose connection with me was the most intimate, and upon whom fell the burden
of duty, I owe and return especial thanks.

I have the honor to be, with much respect, your obedient servant,


Colonel First Regiment Colorado Volunteers, Commanding.


Washington City, D. C.

Page 536 OPERATIONS IN TEX., N. MEX., AND ARIZ. Chapter XXI.   

Numbers 2. Report of Lieutenant Colonel Samuel F. Tappan, First Colorado Infantry.

SANTA FE, N. MEX., May 21, 1862.

In compliance with orders just received from department headquarters I have the honor herewith to submit report of engagement at
Glorieta, or Pigeon's Ranch, on the 28th March last, between the forces of the enemy, under Colonel Scurry, and Colonel Slough's
column of Colorado Volunteers, Howland's cavalry, Ritter's and Claflin's batteries, of four guns each.

On the morning of the day last mentioned I was assigned to the immediate command of a battalion of infantry, consisting of
Companies C, Captain Sopris; D, Captain Downing; G, Captain Wilder, I, Captain Maile, and K, Captain Robbins, First Colorado
Volunteers. A battery of four guns - two 12-pounder mountain howitzers, Lieutenant Claflin, U. S. Regular Army, were attached to
my command. We marched out of camp near the Old Pecos Church, Howland's cavalry in advance, and proceeded about 5 miles
down the road toward Santa Fe to Glorieta, situated in a deep, narrow, and thickly-wounded canon. while my command was at a
rest information of the immediate presence of the enemy was brought by some pickets falling back on Captain Howland's advance.
They reported the enemy in position in the timber about 800 yards in advance. My command was immediately formed, and in
obedience to the orders of Colonel Slough I advanced half that distance at a double-quick, where the batteries were stationed on a
slight elevation in and to the left of the road. Company D deployed to the left and Company I to the right, to occupy the hill-sides as
skirmishers; Company C was assigned to the support of Ritter's and Company K Claflin's batteries. The enemy were concealed
among the trees, and opened fire upon us with their batteries, which was promptly returned by ours, and our skirmishers from the
hill-sides discharged volley after volley among the enemy with telling effect.

Company I, in deploying to the right, passed an opening commanded by the enemy's batteries and suffered severely. They,
however, reached the position assigned them and did excellent service. Occupied this position for nearly half an hour, when the
order was given to fall back to a new position in front of and near the house of Mr. Pigeon. Claflin's battery took position on an
eminence to the left and Ritter's occupied the road. At this juncture Company G, that morning detailed as rear guard, came up, and
were assigned with Company C to support Ritter's battery. Subsequently the first platoon of this company, commanded by Captain
Wilder, was ordered by Colonel Slough to deploy to the right as skirmishers. The enemy advanced and occupied the position we
had left, and the firing was renewed and kept up a considerable time. Then our batteries fell back to their third position.

While the batteries occupied their second position Captain Chapin and myself were requested to accompany Colonel Slough up the
hill to the right to reconnoiter. It was there suggested to the colonel the necessity of occupying the hill to the left with skirmishers, to
prevent the enemy from outflanking us in that direction, to fall upon our rear, and destroy our train, and it would also afford support
to our batteries. He thereupon ordered me to take 20 men from Captain Sopris' company and take position on the hill. these men
were furnished, and not considering them sufficient I took the police guard, not yet assigned


to any special duty, numbering about 70 men, and with them took position in front of and to the left of the batteries on the summit of
the hill, extending my line of skirmishers for nearly three-quarters of a mile in a half circle and at nearly a right angle from the road
occupied by our train of 100 wagons. This position commanded the valley in part, and the irregularities of the surface afforded
excellent protection for the men from the fire of the enemy. Remained here for about four hours. Occasionally small parties of the
enemy would attempt to ascend the hill toward my line, but were driven back as often as they made their appearance.

Before the batteries had fallen back to their third position I noticed 200 or 300 of the enemy nearly a mile off assembling.
Apprehending that they were preparing to charge our batteries, I descended to the valley and communicated my apprehensions to
Colonel Slough. Soon after, returning to the position assigned me on the hill, I received information from Colonel Slough that the
enemy evidently intended to charge my skirmishers to get my position, from which they could assault our battery and train; was
ordered to hold it at all hazards, for all depended upon it; also to be in readiness to advance and attack the enemy's flank when he
should charge him in front, which he designed doing as soon as Major Chivington should attack him in rear, which he expended
every moment. About half an hour afterward a party approached my line, dressed in the uniform of the Colorado volunteers,
requesting us not to shoot, as they were our own men. They were allowed to come within a few paces of us, when, not giving
satisfactory answers to interrogations in reference to their commanders and recognizing them as Texans, my men were ordered to
fire. The enemy suddenly disappeared, leaving several dead and wounded. Apprehending at this time the arrival of Major
Chivington with his command to attack the enemy's rear and that some of his men might get in our front while deployed as
skirmishers, I was therefore extremely cautious not to give the order to fire on parties approaching until they were near enough to
be recognized.

At the time the enemy charged our battery a battalion of the enemy made its appearance among the trees before us, approaching
the center of my line, Major Shropshire and Captain Shannon at head of column. When they had arrived to within a few paces of my
skirmishers, Private Pierce, of Company F, Colorado Volunteers, approached them, killing and disarming the major and taking the
captain prisoner. He returned to our main body and delivered over his prisoner to Captain Chapin, U. S. Army. The fire of my
skirmishers was directed against the head of the still advancing column with such rapidity and effectiveness that the enemy were
compelled to retire, with the loss of several killed and wounded. They once again appeared in the valley, but were repulsed and
driven back. Our column had fallen back from the valley to my right a considerable distance. The enemy occupied the place we had
left. Considering it extremely hazardous to remain longer, and thereby enable the enemy to get in my rear and cut me off from
support of our battery and protection of our train, I ordered my men to fall back and close in the rear of the retiring column, which
they did in good order at a point nearly 2 miles back, and then returned to the camp we left in the morning.

Not having at my command at this time the several reports of commanders of companies engaged in the battle I am consequently
unable to particularize individual acts of heroism, and the exact number of killed, wounded, and missing. Therefore my report must

Page 538 OPERATIONS IN TEX., N. MEX., AND ARIZ. Chapter XXI.   

be incomplete. I would, however, remark that an estimate was made after the battle of the casualties of my command, and, if my
memory serves me, 29 killed, 64 wounded, and 13 missing. Companies D and I, First Colorado Volunteers, were the greatest
sufferers. Several of the wounded have since died from the effects of their wounds, making the number killed 38. The missing were
taken prisoners by the enemy, one of whom escaped. The others were released on their paroles. Lieutenant Baker, of Company I,
was severely wounded during the early part of the engagement, and afterward beaten to death by the enemy with the butt of a
musket or club and his body stripped of its clothing. He was found the next morning, his head scarcely recognizable, so horribly
mangled. He fought gallantly, and the vengeance of the foe pursued him after death. Lieutenant Chambers, of Company C,
Colorado Volunteers, was also severely wounded, from which there is but little hope of this recovery. he proved himself a gallant

Suffice it to say that officers and men acted with great gallantry, and where all did so well to particularize and refer to individuals
becomes unnecessary.

I have the honor to remain, yours, with respect,


Lieutenant-Colonel, First Regiment Colorado Infantry Vols.

Captain G. CHAPIN,

7th Inf., U. S. A., A. A. A. G., Dept Hdqrs., Santa Fe, N. Mex.

Numbers 3. Report of Major John M. Chivington, First Colorado Infantry.


March 28, 1862.

GENERAL: I have the honor to submit to you the following report of the troops under my command on the 28th of March, 1862, at
the battle of Pigeon's Ranch:

In obedience to General Orders, Numbers -, issued to me on the morning of this day, with the following command: 1st, Captain
Lewis' battalion, assisted by Captain Carey, consisting of 60 men; Companies A and G, Fifth Infantry, in charge of Lieutenants Barr
and Norvell; Company B, First Regiment Colorado Volunteers, 78 men, in charge of Captain S. M. Logan and Lieutenant Jacobs,
and Captain James H. Ford's company, Second Colorado Volunteers, in charge of Captain Ford and Lieutenant De Forrest. 2nd,
Captain Wynkoop's battalion, consisting of Company A, First Regiment Colorado Volunteers, in charge of Lieutenant Shaffer, 68
men; Company E, First Regiment Colorado Volunteers, in charge of Captain Scott J. Anthony and Lieutenant J. A. Dawson, 71 men;
Company H, First Regiment Colorado Volunteers, in charge of Captain George L. Sanborn and Lieutenant B. N. Sanford,
numbering about 80 men, I left Camp Lewis at 8.30 o'clock a. m., and at 9.30 o'clock a. m. we left the main road and took the trail
leading to Gallisteo, which we kept for 8 miles, and then without road we traveled about 8 miles, and about 1.30 o'clock p. m. we
reached an eminence overlooking Johnson's Ranch.

After reconnoitering the position it was ascertained that there were corralled in the canon 80 wagons and one field piece, all in
charge of


some 200 men. The command was given to charge, and the troops started upon double-quick. Captain Wynkoop, with 30 of his
men, were deployed to the mountain side to silence their guns by picking off their gunners, which they did effectually, Captain Lewis
capturing and spiking the gun after having five shots discharged at him. The remainder of the command surrounded the wagons
and buildings, killing 3 and wounding several of the enemy. The wagons were all heavily loaded with ammunition, clothing,
subsistence, and forage, all of which were burned upon the spot or rendered entirely useless. During the engagement one of the
wagons containing ammunition exploded, severely wounding Private Ritter, of Company A, First Colorado Volunteers; the only
person injured. We retook 5 privates, who had been taken in the forenoon in the battle between Slough's and Scurry's forces, from
whom reaching the summit of the mountain we were met by Lieutenant Cobb, bringing an order from Colonel Slough for our
advance to support the main column, which we hastened to obey. We also took 17 prisoners, and captured about thirty horses and
mules, which were in a corral in the vicinity of the wagons.

Both officers and men performed their duty efficiently. Captain Lewis had the most dangerous duty assigned him, which he
performed with unfaltering heroism. I repeat, all, ALL did well. the command returned to Camp Lewis about 10 o'clock p. m. the
same day.

I am, general, with much respect, your obedient servant,


Major, First Regiment Colorado Volunteers.

P. S.- I ought in justice to say that a Mr. Collins, in some way connected with Indian affairs in this Territory, and one of Colonel
Slough's volunteer aides, by his own request and Colonel Slough's desire accompanied the command, and gave evidence that he
was a brave man, and did us good service as a guide and interpreter, though he did not burn the train or cause it to be done.

J. M. C.

27 killed; 63 wounded. Total, 90.

Numbers 4. Report of Captain John F. Ritter, Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, commanding light battery.

FORT UNION, N. MEX., May 16, 1862.

SIR: Pursuant to a letter dated Headquarters, Department of New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. Mex., May 15, 1862, I have the honor to
submit the following report:

The light battery which I commanded in the action of Pigeon's Ranch was composed of two 12-pounder howitzers and two
6-pounder guns, without caissons, there being none then in the department. Its total strength consisted of 3 commissioned officers,
besides myself, were First Lieutenant P. McGrath, Sixth Cavalry, and Second Lieutenant R. S. Underhill, Fourth New Mexico
Volunteers. The order for the formation of this battery was dated March 9, 1862, and on March 23 it was ordered with Colonel
Slough's column into the field. On March 28 the enemy was reported in advance, and the battery was ordered to the front to a
position in the road a few hundred yards west of

Page 540 OPERATIONS IN TEX., N. MEX., AND ARIZ. Chapter XXI.   

Pigeon's Ranch, where it commenced fire upon the enemy. After firing a number of rounds I was ordered to take position farther to
the rear and south of the road, some distance from it. Here I was exposed to a galling fire without being able to return it effectually,
the enemy being some distance off and entire sheltered by threes, &c., and I was also some distance from my ammunition wagons.
The supports to the battery were all ordered away with the exception of about one platoon of Colorado Volunteers, and I deemed it
proper to return to the road, which I did after firing a few rounds. It was here that Lieutenant McGrath was fatally wounded. I then
took position nearly in front of Pigeon's Ranch, and established one 6-pounder in the road, while the limber-boxes of the pieces, two
at a time, went to the rear to be replenished. Here one of the enemy's pieces was dismounted by a round shot striking it full in the
muzzle, and another was disabled and a limber-box was blown up by a case shot striking it. Private Kelley, Company E, Fifth
Infantry, was gunner at the piece which did this execution.

From here I was ordered by Captain Chapin to cross the ravine to the other side of the canon and take up a position there, which I
did. Lieutenant Claflin's mountain howitzer battery joined and took position with me. The enemy here made a desperate charge on
the batteries, and was repulsed with, I think, great loss. The enemy then got on the rocky hill on my right flank, and was pouring to
destructive fire of small-arms in the batteries and killed two horses, so that I deemed it proper to withdraw from my position. Private
G. H. Smith, Company E, Fifth Infantry, was killed, and Privates Raleigh and Woolsey, same company, and Private Leddy, Company
I, Second Cavalry, were wounded at this place. I then took position some distance farther to the rear (this position was selected by
Captain G. Chapin, Seventh Infantry) in front of a deep ravine, where the supports were entirely sheltered from the enemy's fire.
The supply train was in the road about 40 yards from the left of the battery. The enemy here made another desperate charge on
the battery, and apparently also the train, but was again repulsed, with, I think, great loss and in great disorder. This was my last
position, and I heard no more firing from either side afterwards. The command then retired for the day to Kozlowski's.

I wish to state in conclusion that I had made a night march the night before the action, and did not get into camp until 4 p. m., and
officers and men were necessarily much fatigued. I was very much impeded in my movements by reason of the deficiency of

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Captain, Fifteenth Infantry, Commanding Light Battery.

Captain G. CHAPIN,

Seventh Inf., A. A. A. G., Dept. of N. Mex., Santa Fe, N. Mex.

Numbers 5. Report of Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley, C. S. Army.

Albuquerque, N. Mex., March 31, 1862.

GENERAL: I have the honor and the pleasure to report another victory.

After the battle of Valverde our advance was uninterrupted to this


city. Here sufficient supplies were secured for sixty days, while from Cubero, a village 60 miles distant, large supplies have been
drawn from the enemy's depot. We have been surrounded with every description of embarrassment, general and individual. Whole
trains had been abandoned, and scantily provided, as they had originally been, with blankets and clothing, the men had, without a
murmur, given up the little left them. More than all this, on the representation of their officers that forage could not be procured with
one accord the regiment agreed to be dismounted.

These preliminary facts are stated because it is due to the brave men under my command that they should be known and the
hand-to-hand desperate contests duly appreciated.

The battle of Glorieta was fought March 28 by detached troops, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Scurry, and Federal
forces, principally Pike's Peakers, under the command of Colonel Slough; the one having 1,000 men and the other estimated at
1,500 or 2,000. Glorieta is a canon 23 miles east of Santa Fe.

Pending the battle the enemy detached a portion of his force to attack and destroy our supply train, which he succeeded in doing,
thus crippling Colonel Scurry to such a degree that he was two days without provisions or blankets. The patient, uncomplaining
endurance of our men is most remarkable and praiseworthy.

Our loss was 33 milled and 35 wounded. Among the killed are Majors Ragnet and Shropshire and Captain Buckholts. Colonel
Scurry had his cheek twice grazed by Minie balls, and Major Pyron had his horse killed under him.

In consequence of the loss of his train Colonel Scurry has fallen back upon Santa Fe.

I must have re-enforcements. The future operations of this army will be duly reported. Send me re-enforcements.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Brigadier-General, Commanding.

General S. COOPER,

Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, Va.

Numbers 6. Reports of Colonel W. R. Scurry, Fourth Texas Cavalry.

SANTA FE, N. MEX., March 30, 1862.

GENERAL: I arrived here this morning with my command and have taken quarters for the present in this city. I will in a short time
give you an official account of the battle of Glorieta, which occurred on day before yesterday, in the Canon Glorieta, about 22 miles
from this city, between the Confederate troops under my command and the Federal forces, commanded by Colonel Slough, of the
Colorado Volunteers, (Pike's Peakers), when another victory was added to the long list of Confederate triumphs.

The action commenced at about 11 o'clock and ended at 5.30, and, although every inch of the ground was well contested, we
steadily drove them back until they were in full retreat our men pursuing until from sheer exhaustion we were compelled to stop.

Our loss was 33 killed and I believe, 35 wounded. Among the killed

Page 542 OPERATIONS IN TEX., N. MEX., AND ARIZ. Chapter XXI.   

was that brave soldier and accomplished officer Major Ragnet, the gallant and impetuous Major Shropshire, and the daring Captain
Buckholts, all of whom fell gallantry leading the men around against the foe. Major Pyron had his horse shot under him, and my own
cheek was twice brushed by a Minie ball, each time just drawing blood, and my clothes torn in two places. I mention this simply to
show how hot was the fire of the enemy when all of the field officers upon the ground were either killed or touched. As soon as I can
procure a full report of all the casualties I will forward them.

Our train was burned by a party who succeeded in passing undiscovered around the mountains to our rear. I regret to have to
report that they fired upon and severely wounded Rev. L. H. Jones, our chaplain, of the Fourth Regiment. He was holding in his
hand a white flag when fire upon.

The loss of the enemy was very severe, being over 75 killed and a large number wounded.

The loss of my supplies so crippled me that after burying my dead I was unable to follow up the victory. My men for two days went
unfed and blanketless unmurmuringly. I was compelled to come here for something to eat.

At last accounts the Federalists were still retiring towards Fort Union.

The men at the train blew up the limber-box and spiked the 6-pounder I had left at the train, so that it was rendered useless, and
the cart-burners left it.

Lieutenant Bennett writes for more ammunition. Please have it sent. As soon as I am fixed for it I wish to get after them again.

From three sources, all believe to be reliable, Canby left Craig on the 24th.

Yours, in haste,


P. S.- I do not know if I write intelligently. I have not slept for three nights, and can scarcely hold my eyes open.

W. R. S.

SANTA FE, N. MEX., March 31, 1862.

MAJOR: Late on the afternoon of the 26th, while encamped at Gallisteo, and express from Major Pyron arrived, with the information
that the major was engaged in a sharp conflict with a greatly superior force of the enemy, about 16 miles distant, and urging me to
hasten to his relief. The critical condition of Major Pyron and his gallant comrades was made known to the command, and in ten
minutes the column was formed and the order to march given. Our baggage train was sent forward under a guard of 100 men,
under the command of Lieutenant Taylor, of the Seventh Regiment, to a point some 6 miles in the rear of Major Pyron's position,
the main command marching directly across the mountains to the scene of conflict. It is due to the brave men making this cold night
march to state that where the road over the mountain was too steep for the horses to drag the artillery they were unharnessed, and
the men cheerfully pulled it over the difficulties of the way by hand.

About 3 o'clock in the morning we reached Major Pyron's encampment at Johnson's Ranch, Canon Cito. There had been an agreed


sation of hostilities until 8 o'clock the next morning. Too much praise cannot be bestowed upon the courage of the officers and men
engaged in the affair of the 26th.

As soon as daylight enabled me I made a thorough examination of the ground, and so formed the troops as to command every
approach to the position we occupied, which was naturally a very strong one. The disposition of the troops was soon completed,
and by 8 o'clock were ready to receive the expected attack.

In this position we remained until the next morning. The enemy still not making their appearance, I concluded to march forward and
attack them. Leaving a small wagon guard, I marched in their direction with portions of nine companies of the Fourth Regiment,
under their respective officers, Captain [George J.] Hampton, Lesueur, Foard, Crosson, Julius Giesecke, Alexander, Buckholts, [J.
M.] Odell, and Lieutenant Holland, of Company B, Captain Scarborough being unwell; four companies of the Seventh Regiment,
under Captains [Gustav] Hoffman, [J. W.] Gardner, [J. F.] Wiggins, and [Isaac] Adair; four companies of the Fifth Regiment, under
Captain [Denman] Shannon and [Daniel H.] Ragsdale and Lieuts. Pleasant J. Oakes and John J. Scott; three pieces of artillery,
under Lieutenant Bradford, together with Captain Phillips' company if independent volunteers.

From details and other causes they were reduced until (all combined) they did not number over 600 men fit for duty. At about 6
miles from our camp the advance guard gave notice that the enemy were near in force. I hastened in front to examine their position,
and found they were about 1 mile west of Pigeon's Ranch, in Canon Glorieta. The mounted men who were marching in front were
ordered to retire slowly to the rear, dismount, and come into action on foot. The artillery was pushed forward to a slight elevation in
the canon and immediately opened fire. The infantry was rapidly deployed into line, extending across the canon from a fence on our
left up into the pine forest on our right.

About the time these dispositions were made the enemy rapidly advanced in separate columns both upon our right and left. I
dispatched Major Pyron to the right to check them in that direction, and placing the center in command of Major Ragnet I hastened
with the remainder of the command to the left. A large body of infantry, availing themselves of a gulch that ran up the center of an
inclosed field to our left, were moving under its cover past our left flank to the rear of our position. Crossing the fence on foot, we
advanced over the clearing some 200 yards under a heavy fire from the foe, and dashed into the gulch in their midst, pistol and
knife in hand. For a few moments a most desperate and deadly hand-to-hand conflict raged along the gulch, when they broke
before the steady courage of our men and fled in the wildest disorder and confusion.

Major Pyron was equally successful, and Major Ragnet with his force charged rapidly down the center. Lieutenant Bradford, of the
artillery, had been wounded and borne from the field. There being no other officer of the artillery present, three guns, constituting
our battery, had been hastily withdrawn before I was aware of it. Sending to the rear to have two of the guns brought back to the
field a pause was made to reunite our forces, which had become somewhat scattered in the last rencounter. When we were ready to
advance the enemy had taken cover, and it was impossible to tell whether their main body was sta-

Page 544 OPERATIONS IN TEX., N. MEX., AND ARIZ. Chapter XXI.   

tioned behind a long adobe wall that ran nearly across the canon or had taken position behind a large ledge of rocks in the rear.
Private W. D. Kirk, of Captain Phillips' company, had taken charge of one of the guns, and Sergeant Patrick, of the artillery,
another, and brought them to the ground.

While trying by the fire of these two guns to ascertain the locality of the enemy, Major Shropshire was sent to the right, with orders
to move up among the pines until he should find the enemy, when he was to attack them on that flank. Major Ragnet, with similar
orders, was dispatched to the left. I informed these gallant officers that as soon as the sound of their guns was heard I would charge
in front with the remainder of the command. Sending Major Pyron to the assistance of Major Ragnet, and leaving instruction for the
center to charge as the fire opened on the right, I passed in that direction to learn the cause of delay in making the assault. I found
that the gallant Major Shropshire had been killed. I took command of the right and immediately attacked the enemy who were at the
ranch. Majors Ragnet and Pyron opened a galling fire upon their left from the rock on the mountain side, and the center charging
down the road, the foe were driven from the ranch to the ledge of rocks before alluded to, where they made their final and most
desperate stand. At this point three batteries of eight guns opened a furious fire of grape, canister, and shell upon our advancing

Our brave soldiers, heedless fo the storm, pressed on, determined if possible to take their battery. A heavy body of infantry, twice
our number, interposed to save their guns. Here the conflict was terrible. Our men and officers, alike inspired with the unalterable
determination to overcome every obstacle to the attainment of their object, dashed among them. The right and center had united on
the left. The intrepid Ragnet and the cool, calm, courageous Pyron had pushed forward among the rocks until the muzzles of the
guns of the opposing forces passed each other. Inch by inch was the ground disputed, until the artillery of the enemy had time to
escape with a number of their wagons. The infantry also broke ranks and fled from the field. So precipitate was their flight that they
cut loose their teams and set fire to two of their wagons. The pursuit was kept up until forced to halt from the extreme exhaustion of
the men, who had been engaged for six hours in the hardest contested fight it had ever been my lot to witness. The enemy is now
known to have numbered 1,400 men, Pike's Peak miners and regulars, the flower of the U. S. Army.

During the action a part of the enemy succeeded in reaching our rear, surprising the wagon guard, and burning our wagons, taking
at the same time some 16 prisoners. About this time a party of prisoners, whom I had sent to the rear, reached there, and informed
them how the fight was going in front; whereupon they beat a hasty retreat, not, however, until the perpetration of two acts which the
most barbarous savage of the plains would blush to own. One was the shooting and dangerously wounding of the Rev. L. H. Jones,
chaplain of the Fourth Regiment, with a white flag in his hand; the other an order that the prisoners they had taken be shot in case
they were attacked on their retreat. These instances go to prove that they have lost all sense of humanity in the insane hatred they
bear to the citizens of the Confederacy, who have the manliness to arm in defense of their country's independence.

We remained upon the battle-field during the day of the 29th to bury our dead and provide for the comfort of the wounded, and then


marched to Santa Fe, to procure supplies and transportation to replace those destroyed by the enemy.

Our loss was 36 killed and 60 wounded. Of the killed 24 were of the Fourth Regiment, 1 of the Fifth Regiment, 8 of the Seventh
Regiment, and 1 of the artillery.

That of the enemy greatly exceeded this number, 44 of their dead being counted where the battle first opened. Their killed must
have considerably exceeded 100.

The country has to mourn the loss of four as brave and chivalrous officers as ever graced the ranks of any army. The gallant Major
Shropshire fell early, pressing upon the foe and cheering his men on. The brave and chivalrous Major Ragnet fell mortally wounded
while engaged in the last and most desperate conflict of the day. He survived long enough to know and rejoice at our victory, and
then died with loving messages upon his expiring lips. The brave, gallant Captain Buckholts and Lieutenant Mills conducted
themselves with distinguished gallantry throughout the fight and fell near its close. Of the living it is only necessary to say all
behaved with distinguished courage and daring.

This battle proves conclusively that few mistakes were made in the selection of the officers in this command. They were ever in the
front, leading their men into the hottest of the fray. It is not too much to say that, even in the midst of this heroic band, among whom
instances of individual daring and personal prowess were constantly occurring, Major Pyron was distinguished by the calm
intrepidity of his bearing. It is due to Adjt. Ellsberry R. Lane to bear testimony to the courage and activity he displayed in the
discharge of his official duties, and to acknowledge my obligations for the manner in which he carried out my orders.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Colonel, Commanding Army of New Mexico.

Major A. M. JACKSON,

Assistant Adjutant-General, Army of New Mexico.
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